Timeline of Selected Events: 1910-1914

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1910 Book Icon

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1911 Book Icon

  • New York's Ellis Island has a record one day influx of 11,745 immigrants. Pic Icon
  • U.S. population, which reaches 94 million, is at least 25% foreign born in nearly every part of the country outside the South. British is population 40.8 million.

1912 Book Icon

  • Jacques Loeb's The Mechanistic Conception of Life uses physics and chemistry to explain the origin of life.
  • Henry Ford produces autos on moving assembly line, a model of the mass production techniques which propelled America to the forefront of industrial civilization.
  • J. B. Watson publishes first papers on behaviorism.
  • Congress extends the 8-hour work day to all federal employees. In private industry most workers labor 10 to 12 hours per day 6 days per week, and a minimum wage law for women and children passed in Massachusetts is the first state law of its kind.
  • S. S. Titanic scrapes an iceberg and sinks; 1,513 of 2,224 passengers die. Pic Icon
  • After discovery of remains in 1911, the Piltdown Man hoax deceives world paleontologists. An English amateur claims to have discovered the "missing link" between man and ape. Though the remains consist of a modern cranium and the jaw of an orangutan, the ruse is not publicly exposed until 1953. Pic Icon
  • The Kallikak Family by U.S. psychologist Henry Goddard relates feeblemindedness to crime and causes a sensation. Goddard, who invented the word "moron" in 1910, last year revised the Binet-Simon intelligence test for U.S. use. Pic Icon

1913 Book Icon

  • The Sixteenth Amendment empowers Congress to levy graduated income taxes on incomes above $3,000 a year. Tax will bring drastic changes to lifestyles of a few thousand rich Americans, but the very rich will find loopholes for avoiding taxes.
  • The U.S. has 40 percent of the world's industrial production, up from 20 percent in 1860.
  • The average British worker still earns less than $5 per week while American workers average more than $2 per day.
  • The Federal Reserve System is created. Member banks required to maintain cash reserves proportionate to their deposits with the Fed.
  • Watson founds behaviorism, which defines psychology as a study of observable behavior.
  • Suggested Reading: Watson's "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It."

1914 Book Icon

  • World War I begins.
  • Arthur Eddington suggests that spiral nebulas are galaxies.
  • U.S. auto production reaches 543,679 with Model T Fords accounting for more than 300,000 of the total.
  • Threats of labor troubles lead Henry Ford to offer workers a minimum wage of $5 per day mdash;more than twice the average U.S. wage and more than the average English worker earns in a week.
  • The Woman Rebel by U.S. feminist Margaret Sanger introduces the term "birth control." Sanger exiles herself to England to escape federal prosecution for publishing and mailing Family Limitation, a brochure dealing with contraception. Pic Icon
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  • 1910